search engines and SEO



The pre-reference era.

  • It lasted in runet until about 2002. In the pre-cursor era, textual factors are the main factors for ranking. At first, optimization looks like control over the correct spelling of document titles, because it is by titles that search engines index pages. A little later, optimizers are beginning to check the correctness of the meta tags, title, follow the text on the page were a sufficient number of times entered keywords on which the page is promoted.
  • For several years, search engines have been largely focused on the text of web-documents. This allowed the optimizers with a simple manipulation of key phrases in the meta tags and other internal factors “out” in the top for the right requests. As a result, the first place in most commercial search results were occupied by advertising sites.
  • Sergey Ludkevich told about the pre-reference epoch: “Those were fun times: you could copy a page that ranked high for a particular query, and replacing a few words on that page, you could get ahead of the site from which you borrowed the content” (a quote from this interview).
  • When it became clear the commercial benefits that can be derived from the optimization of the site, SEO becomes a business offering a service – promotion by position.

The year 2000 – SEO is growing up.

  • Before the millennium, search engine optimization – is just flowers, a game of turkey. After – everything changes. SEO becomes a real business and companies with large turnovers appear. 2001 was the year that the first serious Russian SEO agencies were founded. It was in that year that, for example, Ashmanov & Partners, a company considered to be the ancestor of Russian SEO, was founded.


Links – the great good and the great evil

  • Reference factors, which have become major ranking factors in the 2000s, have their roots in the scientific world. How do scientists evaluate the authority of a given work? One way to understand how significant a scientific work is to look at its citation index, which is determined by the number of citations by other authors or publications to that work. Naturally, the more reputable the publication or scholar who cites the work, the more important the work itself looks. Hence the well-known thesis in the search engine marketing market: it is not only the quantity but also the quality of external links that matters.
  • Since 1998 begins to gain worldwide popularity search engine Google. The highlight of the future world search giant is the PageRank algorithm. All the other search engines evaluate web pages based on textual factors (putting it crudely: the greater the number of times a page mentioned a search phrase, the higher the position of the page in the output). Google ranks fundamentally differently: by the number of backlinks to a particular URL.

  • PageRank was based on the calculation of the number of external links and the weight of the referring pages, which means that the number and authority of resources that cite a page became crucial. The problem of relevancy (when it is difficult for the search bot to select the most relevant pages from the mass of documents with the same content) was solved by Google with mathematical elegance. Thanks to PageRank, Google’s algorithm for calculating page authority, search quality in Google has improved manifold.


  • Google, by introducing PageRank, relied on link ranking, which at some point made its results more relevant than those of its competitors, for whom search by page text was still the main factor. The lack of an alternative to PageRank made many other search engines uncompetitive.
  • Link ranking in runet
    In 2002-2003 the term TIC (Thematic Citation Index) entered the lexicon of the Russian search marketing market.


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